Browsing by Title
Showing results [2184 - 2203] / 3356
Objective structured clinical examination in basic thoracic ultrasound: a European study of validity evidence
Basic thoracic ultrasound is being used more frequently by clinicians in several settings due to its high diagnostic accuracy for many common causes of respiratory failure and dyspnoea. However, ultrasound examinations are operator-dependent, and sufficient competences are needed to obtain high sensitivity and specificity of examinations. Additionally, it is crucial for ultrasound operators to perceive the competence to interpret the images and integrate them into the patient history and other examinations. This study aims to explore and gather validity evidence for an objective structured clinical examination test of basic thoracic ultrasound competences and establish a pass/fail sco...
The perception of realism in computer-generated images can be significantly enhanced by subtle visual cues. Among those, one can highlight the presence of dust on synthetic objects, which is often subject to temporal variations in real settings. In this paper, we present a framework for the generation of textures representing the accumulation of this ubiquitous material over time in indoor settings. It employs a physically inspired approach to portray the effects of different levels of accumulated dust roughness on the appearance of substrate surfaces and to modulate these effects according to the different illumination and viewing geometries. The development of its core algorithms wa...
Obstetric fistula-induced incontinence and WASH programming in humanitarian settings: agenda for research, innovation, and practice
Women living with obstetric fistula-induced incontinence (OFII) have heightened need for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services because they experience involuntary leaking of urine, feces, or both. In humanitarian settings where access to WASH services is notably limited, research and innovation relating to OFII and WASH programming has not been granted the requisite attention, relative to menstrual hygiene management. The paper is intended to bring to the attention of humanitarian researchers and practitioners the research needs of women living with OFII. Three thematic areas that have the propensity to arouse interest in this neglected topical issue and help to set the stage ...
Obtaining biocompatible polymeric scaffolds loaded with calcium phosphates through the digital light processing technique
In the present work, scaffolds with gyroid TPMS geometry were obtained from a commercial resin of acrylic nature loaded with 0.5% and 1% w/V of calcium phosphate nanoparticles through DLP. The scaffolds obtained presented Young's Modulus between 300 and 400 MPa, which makes them suitable for bone applications. The surface treatment by oxygen plasma carried out on the scaffolds resulted in a notable improvement in the wettability of the surfaces, which favours cell adhesion on the surface of the materials. The in vitro bioactivity assay conducted on the resin/calcium phosphate particles composite material showed that an apatitic layer forms on the surface of the samples from the third ...
Octagonal layouts are widely used in medieval architecture. In Spain, the Cathedral of Valencia is an exceptional example because of its compositional arrangement and early date of construction. The study of this cathedral serves not only to propose the regulatory layout and geometric process to develop the transept, the ambulatory, and the dome but allows the empirical establishment of the complex properties and characteristics of the octagon. By surveying the planes with a 3D laser scanner, the graphic procedures used in the original design of the temple were verified, as were the geometric theories pertaining to the figure of the octagon in architecture, set by the golden ratio.
Of causes and symptoms: using monitoring data and expert knowledge to diagnose the causes of stream degradation
Ecological status assessment under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) often integrates the impact of multiple stressors into a single index value. This hampers the identification of individual stressors being responsible for status deterioration. As a consequence, management measures are often disentangled from assessment results. To close this gap and to support river basin managers in the diagnosis of stressors, we linked numerous macroinvertebrate assessment metrics and one diatom index with potential causes of ecological deterioration through Bayesian belief networks (BBNs).
Freeze-drying is widely used in geochemical laboratories for preparing wet solid environmental samples such as sediments and soils before being analyzed for their contents and states of various metal elements and labile organic components that may be temperature- and/or redox-sensitive. Screening bulk geochemical analysis of two Artic lake sediment samples prepared by freeze-drying displayed unexpectedly high contents of labile organic matter (OM) represented by the Rock–Eval S1 peaks (e.g., 8.12 and 4.84 mg HC/g sediment). The amount of labile OM was reduced greatly for the freeze-dried sediment samples after a thorough cleaning of the freeze-drier sample chamber (e.g., 2.75 and 1.46...
We study a general version of the Cheeger inequality by considering the shape functional Fp,q(Ω)=λ1/pp(Ω)/λ1/qq(Ω). The infimum and the supremum of Fp,q are studied in the class of all domains Ω of Rd and in the subclass of convex domains. In the latter case the issue concerning the existence of an optimal domain for Fp,q is discussed.
On a multistage discrete stochastic optimization problem with stochastic constraints and nested sampling
We consider a multistage stochastic discrete program in which constraints on any stage might involve expectations that cannot be computed easily and are approximated by simulation. We study a sample average approximation (SAA) approach that uses nested sampling, in which at each stage, a number of scenarios are examined and a number of simulation replications are performed for each scenario to estimate the next-stage constraints. This approach provides an approximate solution to the multistage problem. To establish the consistency of the SAA approach, we first consider a two-stage problem and show that in the second-stage problem, given a scenario, the optimal values and solutions of ...
We study global and local geometry of forms on odd symplectic BV supermanifolds, constructed from the total space of the bundle of 1-forms on a base supermanifold. We show that globally 1-forms are an extension of vector bundles defined on the base supermanifold. In the holomorphic category, we prove that this extension is split if and only if the super Atiyah class of the base supermanifold vanishes. This is equivalent to the existence of a holomorphic superconnection: we show how this condition is related to the characteristic non-split geometry of complex supermanifolds.
On Due Diligence and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in International Law: What a Māori World View Can Offer
Due diligence is on the rise in international law. However, its roots and historic narrative remain heavily Eurocentric in nature. This becomes problematic in the context of states’ due diligence obligations relating to the rights of indigenous peoples. Meanwhile, due diligence can also be found in indigenous legal systems. An example is tikanga, which regulates the lives of the Māori in New Zealand. This paper attempts to investigate principles of tikanga reflecting features of a standard of care and compares this to the way due diligence is currently given meaning in international law. From this it follows that tikanga puts more emphasis on ‘relationships and balance’ than contempor...
General Enterprise Architecting (GEA) is an enterprise architecture method which has emerged out of a need in practice, and has been developed and matured over the past 15 years. The GEA method differs from other enterprise architecture approaches in that it has a strong focus on enterprise coherence and the explicit governance thereof. This focus followed from the observed need to move beyond the Business-IT alignment and ‘Business-to-IT’ stack thinking that is embodied in most of the existing enterprise architecture approaches. The main objective of this paper is to report, and reflect on, the development of the GEA method (so-far), which involved a co-evolution between theory and p...
This paper deals with generalizations and refinements of Fejér’s inequality with some new applications. We introduce a real mapping Mωf(t) and obtain some its functional properties. We present several inequalities in connection with fractional integrals and their refinements by monotone functions. We also give some inequalities related to Euler’s gamma and beta functions. Furthermore, we obtain some upper and lower bounds for generalized logarithmic mean and the expected value of random variables by using the arithmetic mean.
On hypothesis testing in latent class and finite mixture stochastic frontier models, with application to a contaminated normal-half normal model
Latent class and finite mixture stochastic frontier models have been proposed as a means of allowing either for technological heterogeneity or more flexible distributions of noise and inefficiency. As in the wider literature on latent class and finite mixture models, we are interested in class enumeration, particularly testing against homogeneity. We apply a modified likelihood ratio test for homogeneity in a stochastic frontier setting, based on established results for non-Gaussian latent class and finite mixture models, and provide evidence from Monte Carlo experiments which suggest the applicability of results regarding a modified likelihood ratio test to the stochastic frontier se...
Performance feedback is an integral element of an accounting system, and firms provide this feedback at varying frequencies to their employees. This paper explicates the impact of an interim performance evaluation on the principal’s surplus using a dynamic two-period agency model. Two settings are discussed: single-purpose use, wherein accounting information is used solely for control purposes, and dual-purpose use, in which accounting information is used for production and control. Results demonstrate that the optimality of interim performance evaluations depends on the use of information and the interdependence of period outcomes. Furthermore, neither setting entails strict dominanc...
We classify all exactly stress-free solutions to the cubic-to-trigonal phase transformation within the geometrically linearized theory of elasticity, showing that only simple laminates and crossing-twin structures can occur. In particular, we prove that although this transformation is closely related to the cubic-to-orthorhombic phase transformation, all its solutions are rigid. The argument relies on a combination of the Saint-Venant compatibility conditions together with the underlying nonlinear relations and non-convexity conditions satisfied by the strain components.