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Title: The nitrogen slow-release fertilizer based on urea incorporating chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) blend
Authors: Phong Thanh Vo
Huu The Nguyen
Hai Thi Trinh
Viet Minh Nguyen
Anh-Tuan Le
Huy QuangTran
Thuy Thi Thu Nguyen
Issue Date: 2021
Publisher: Environmental Technology & Innovation
Abstract: For mitigating environmental pollution caused by excess usage of urea fertilizer, this paper reports a new fertilizer formulation, based on urea incorporating chitosan (CS) and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) blend, for the slow release of urea. The urea/CS/PVA formulations were prepared by cross-linking CS and PVA blend in the presence of urea with glutaraldehyde as a cross-linker. The results indicated an interaction between urea and the functional groups of CS and PVA through hydrogen bonding, which has significant effects on the thermal properties of urea/CS/PVA formulation. The surface morphology of urea/CS/PVA formulations showed that the quantity of urea crystals anchored on the surface increased with the contents of urea and the cross-linking agent. Urea/CS/PVA formulations with a high degree of cross-linking had low water absorbency in the early stage. Meanwhile, they improved hydrolytic stability in the latter stage upon being immersed in water. The sustained release of urea from urea/CS/PVA formulations was prolonged to 10 days. The amount of urea released from urea/CS/PVA formulation with low urea contents followed the first order and Hixson–Crowell models. In contrast, urea/CS/PVA formulation with high urea contents fitted well to the Higuchi and Korsmeyer–Peppas​ models. This study provides a simple process to produce urea/CS/PVA formulation, a potential slow-release fertilizer used in agriculture to minimize adverse environmental and economic impacts.
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