|Bad Faith, Public Policy and Morality: How Open Concepts Shape Trade Mark Protection
|The grounds for refusal or invalidity relating to trade marks filed in bad faith or being contrary to public policy or accepted principles of morality are based entirely on undefined concepts and require a value judgement to be made by the adjudicating authorities. This openness has led to the exploration of new lanes for these grounds in case law beyond the traditional scope of their application. This paper examines how the flexibility of the concepts at hand has led to considerable uncertainty in assessing whether a particular mark is registered in bad faith or offends against morality and public policy – and in some cases both. In particular, the objective, consistent viewpoint of the average consumer, which is normally applied in other areas of trade mark law, appears to be exiled from the analysis in these cases.
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|OER - Pháp luật - Thể chế xã hội
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