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Current and future diagnostics urgently need imaging agents that are non-toxic and superior to clinically used small molecule dyes. Herein, we have developed luminescent green light-emitting carbon dots (GCDs) via a single-step hydrothermal reaction using a low-cost chemical precursor, p-toluenesulfonic acid. The GCDs exhibit excitation-independent fluorescence (FL) emission with the photoluminescence quantum yield of 70% and no FL quenching up to 1.25 mg/mL. The GCDs exhibit negligible cytotoxicity up to 250 µg/mL concentration in RAW 264.7 cells. Interestingly, GCDs exhibit an excitation-independent and concentration-dependent fluorescence emission behaviour. In vitro, the peak emis...
Ultra-fast meta-parameter optimization for time series similarity measures with application to nearest neighbour classification
Nearest neighbour similarity measures are widely used in many time series data analysis applications. They compute a measure of similarity between two time series. Most applications require tuning of these measures’ meta-parameters in order to achieve good performance. However, most measures have at least O(L2) complexity, making them computationally expensive and the process of learning their meta-parameters burdensome, requiring days even for datasets containing only a few thousand series. In this paper, we propose ULTRAFASTMPSEARCH, a family of algorithms to learn the meta-parameters for different types of time series distance measures. These algorithms are significantly faster t...
Ultrasensitive Detection of Methylene Blue Using an Electrochemically Synthesized SERS Sensor Based on Gold and Silver Nanoparticles: Roles of Composition and Purity on Sensing Performance and Reliability
An electrochemical approach has been used for green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (e-AuNPs and e-AgNPs) with high levels of purity and scalability. The electrochemically synthesized noble-metal nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confirming the formation of spherical e-AuNPs and e-AgNPs with average size of 19 nm and 24 nm, respectively. These green nanoparticles were deposited on aluminum substrates using the drop-drying method for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based detection of Methylene Blue (MB) within the ranges from 10−5 M to 10−8 M and 10−7 M to 10−10 M, respectively. The ...
Ultrasensitive determination of chloramphenicol in pork and chicken meat samples using a portable electrochemical sensor: effects of 2D nanomaterials on the sensing performance and stability
Functional two-dimensional (2D) structured nanomaterials, such as, graphene oxide (GO) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), exhibit many advantages, including large surface areas and excellent electronic/mechanical/catalytic properties, and have shown to be s
Ultrasonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter to detect intracranial hypertension: an observational study
To evaluate the ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a predictor of intracranial hypertension as compared to the invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP).
Ultrasound-guided superficial cervical plexus block combined with clavipectoral fascial plane block or interscalene brachial plexus block in clavicle surgery: a single-centre, double-blind, randomized controlled trial
The sensory innervation of the clavicle is complex, and the best regional block technology for clavicular surgery has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to compare the application of ultrasound-guided superficial cervical plexus block combined with clavipectoral fascial plane block verses interscalene brachial plexus block in clavicular surgery. Fifty patients undergoing internal fixation surgery for elective clavicle fractures were randomly divided into two groups (n = 25 for each group): group I and group II.
Unanimity or standing aside? Reinterpreting consensus in United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change negotiations
What is the meaning of ‘consensus’ within and beyond the UNFCCC? What alternative interpretations of consensus are available based on consensus facilitation practice and related literature? This article assesses the mismatch between how the UNFCCC interprets consensus and its broader interpretation in the facilitation practice literature, and proposes a way forward using the concept of ‘standing aside’ more prominently. The restrictive consensus interpretation has far-reaching implications for the ability of the world’s central climate regime to be fit for purpose, i.e., facilitating multilateral climate action. The analysis of consensus in the UNFCCC points to the central problems of...
Unapparent systemic effects of regional anticoagulation with citrate in continuous renal replacement therapy a narrative review
After citrate administration, calcium citrate complexes are formed. Clearance in diffusive modes increases with the dialysate flow, in convective modes with filtration flow . Complexes that are not removed through the hemofilter return to the patient. In convective modes up to 60% of the citrate given prefilter is cleared via the hemofilter into the effluent (sometimes more in diffusive modes), the rest returning to the patient for metabolization . Decreasing blood flow limits the amount of delivered citrate to the extracorporeal circuit. Limiting blood flows in convective modes in combination with high filtration rates may lead to a high filtration fraction. Therefore, higher...
Uncovering the Link Between the Theoretical and Probabilistic Models of the Global Production Function: A Copula Approach
We provide micro foundations for the global production function (GPF) based on the standard microeconomic model, and we develop a parallel probabilistic model with similar properties. The theoretical and probabilistic models of the GPF are integrated in the context of a technology choice problem. We construct a primitive, named the augmented transformation function, to obtain a GPF and its associated joint distribution that includes the output and labor-saving and capital-saving technological innovations. This type of primitive allows us not only to derive the theoretical GPF but also to consistently build a link between the substitutability microparameters (elasticities) and the prob...
Uncrewed and autonomous marine vessels (UMVs) challenge the underlying paradigm of maritime laws and regulations. Yet UMVs are considered essential for safer, more efficient, and more effective maritime futures. There is a fundamental challenge facing industry and regulators about how to develop and support the nascent UMV industry while maintaining the safety and risk management principles and processes in legacy laws and regulations predicated on the conventional crewed vessel. This paper, drawing upon case studies of developer and operator experiences with Australia’s maritime safety framework, argues for an “intent-based”, flexible, and collaborative approach based on developers’ ...
Understanding capacities to scale innovations for sustainable development: a learning journey of scaling partnerships in three parts of Africa
Finding out how to scale innovations successfully is high on the agendas of researchers, practitioners and policy makers involved in agricultural development. New approaches and methodologies seek to better address related complexities, but none of them include a systematic perspective on the role of capacity in (partnerships for) scaling innovations. We posit that this has left an important topic insufficiently addressed in relation to partnerships for scaling innovations. The need to address this gap became apparent in the context of the CGIAR Roots, Tubers, and Bananas (RTB) Scaling Fund initiative.
Voluntary sustainability standards are quickly gaining ground. Whether and how they work in the field, however, remains largely unclear. This is troubling for standards organizations since it hinders the improvement of their standards to achieve a higher impact. One reason why it is difficult to understand the mechanics of VSS is heterogeneity in compliance. We apply machine learning techniques to analyze compliance with one particular VSS: Rainforest Alliance-for which we have detailed audit data for all certified coffee and cocoa producers. In a first step, we deploy a k-modes algorithm to identify four clusters of producers with similar non-compliance patterns. In a second step, we...
Despite the benefits of a lean business system, many organisations struggle to implement and sustain lean initiatives. The purpose of this work was to explore in what way a leader’s deeper knowledge or different understandings of lean affects the lean implementation and its outcomes. The research methodology incorporated a survey of 757 participants. How respondents understood lean was assessed and later correlated to their extent of lean knowledge and specific understanding. This was supported by exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. What caused participants to pursue lean knowledge was also assessed. Low lean knowledge and experience correlated with a system...
Understanding the phenomenon of saltwater intrusion sourced from desalination plants at coastal aquifers
Members of the Gulf Cooperation Council countries Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates rely on desalination to produce water for domestic use. Desalination produces brine that may intrude into the aquifers to pollute the fresh groundwater because of the concentration gradient and groundwater pumping. Modeling the trends of saltwater intrusion needs theoretical understanding and thorough logical experimentation. The objective of this exercise was to understand the phenomenon of saltwater intrusion using an existing set of data analyzed with the convective–diffusion equation and the two-region mobile–immobile solution model.
Understanding the urgent and emergency care navigation work undertaken by people with cancer and their informal caregivers: a conceptually framed scoping review
People with cancer frequently use urgent and emergency care. Reviews of research have focussed on the incidence and predictors of service use in this population, rather than how people make decisions about which service to access. Understanding what factors influence these choices will inform ways in which we might enable people with cancer to effectively access services.
Unequal location, unequal access: the spatial analysis of solid waste disposal services in Northern Ghana
Urban centres in Ghana continue to expand to areas with difficult accessibility, severely impacting location decisions on solid waste disposal sites (SWDS). This study uses the location theory to examine the spatial distribution of SWDS in urban Ghana. Methodologically, it uses the nearness neighbour tool, which is a key component in GIS for spatial analysis. The results show that the distribution of SWDS was clustered, randomized, and skewed. The distribution was influenced by accessibility and the ability to pay for waste management services. For these reasons, high-density populated communities were serviced through the central container collection system, while high-class resident...
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Ứng dụng phân tích Swot trong phát triển hệ thống cửa hàng bán lẻ xăng dầu trên địa bàn thành phố Hà Nội cho công ty xăng dầu khu vực 1
Trình bày cơ sở lý luận; thực trạng và giải pháp ứng dụng phân tích Swot trong phát triển hệ thống cửa hàng bán lẻ xăng dầu trên địa bàn thành phố Hà Nội cho công ty xăng dầu khu vực 1.
Tin selenide (SnSe) is considered a robust candidate for thermoelectric applications due to its very high thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, with values of 2.6 in p-type and 2.8 in n-type single crystals. Sn has been replaced with various lower group dopants to achieve successful p-type doping in SnSe with high ZT values. A known, facile, and powerful alternative way to introduce a hole carrier is to use a natural single Sn vacancy, VSn. Through transport and scanning tunneling microscopy studies, we discovered that VSn are dominant in high-quality (slow cooling rate) SnSe single crystals, while multiple vacancies, Vmulti, are dominant in low-quality (high cooling rate) single crysta...